The laptop battery powers your laptop when it is not plugged into a wall outlet via an AC adapter. Most laptop batteries need to replaced every 3 to 5 years depending on how often you use the laptop with only battery power. The typical length of time that you are able to run your laptop on battery power depends on what tasks you are doing, but it should last around 2 to 5 hours with general use. A laptop will mostly likely have a lithium ion battery in older laptops or a lithium polymer battery in newer laptops.
The AC adapter for a laptop connects to a power outlet to both provide electricity for your laptop and to charge your battery. The adapter converts AC (Alternating Current) to DC (Direct Current).
The touchpad on a laptop is an alternative to using a mouse. By sliding your finger along the smooth, flat, touch sensitive surface of the pad, you control the movement of the cursor on the screen. Often, double tapping the touchpad with your finger simulates a click of the button on a mouse.
A keyboard is a set of keys arranged into rows and used to input text and numbers or give commands to the laptop. Laptops may not have a full keyboard depending on the size of the laptop, they may not have a numeric keypad.
The LCD cable connects the motherboard to the LCD screen, so data can be transferred from the motherboard and video card to the screen. Most LCD cables also connect to and provide high voltage DC power to the inverter board.
The inverter board provides power to the backlight lamp inside your LCD screen, which allows the image on the screen to be bright. The inverter converts DC power, which is supplied by the motherboard, into AC power which is needed by the backlight lamp in the LCD.
The LCD (liquid-crystal display) screen uses liquid crystals, sealed between two polarizing filters, to redirect light when they are energized. The light passes through color filters to create the colors used to display the image for you to view.
Optical drives can be either internal or external and are used to read and/or write CD’s, DVD’s and Blu-ray discs depending on the specific drive. Optical drives use lasers to read and write data to and from optical discs (CD, DVD, etc…). The lasers for writing data are considerably more powerful than the lasers used to read data because they need to “burn” the data into the disc, which is why they are commonly called burners.
The hard disk drive is where you operating system, program files, and personal files are stored. Laptop hard drives are either 2.5″ (60mm) or 1.8″ (46mm) in size and thinner than desktop hard drives. The two most common hard drive interfaces in laptops are IDE/PATA (Integrated Drive Electronics/Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment) and SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment). Serial ATA is the replacement for the older Parallel ATA hard drives.
The audio board is used to enable the laptop to input, process, and output sound. In laptops the audio chip is usually integrated into the motherboard and, like video chips, is generally not possible to upgrade.